Stock Exchange

It doesn't matter if you want to trade Forex, stocks, bonds or options; you need to know how the financial world works in general. One of the key terms that you should know is the stock market. Our guide will explain the basic principles of any stock exchange, talk about the history

Stock Market: 16th Century

The stock market originated in Europe. Between the 16th and 17th centuries, the first stock exchanges appeared in London and Amsterdam. However, they don't look much like the stock exchanges we see today. At that time, companies were semi-public and needed government permission to do business.

The origins of the stock market date back to the 16th and 17th centuries.

Later, in the 18th century, the actual stock exchanges were founded in the United States. For example, the famous Philadelphia Stock Exchange (PHLX) offered stock trading. The bag still exists.

At that time, it created the exchange due to the Buttonwood deal made by 24 brokers and traders from New York City. Before the official establishment of the stock market, brokers met without official regulation, under a buttonwood tree, on Wall Street, to trade stocks.

When hearing about the global stock market, most people think of Wall Street; guys in suits are yelling, calling, and trying to catch the best option. However, times and stocks have changed.

Today, the system has developed significantly. Traders are guaranteed that the shares are priced reasonably. Also, there are stock exchanges all over the world that are electronically interconnected. This means that financial markets have become more liquid and effective.

Stock Market: Definition

The stock exchange is an institution that offers stock trading. It is the place where investors meet to buy or sell securities. Any stock exchange operates under a specific regulation that controls market agents and market operations. Also, the stock exchange has specific business hours.

The stock exchange is an institution that offers regulated stock trading.

Simply put, the stock market is a secondary market. The primary market is where a company issues its shares. The purpose of the placement of claims is the willingness to attract additional funds. This money can be used for the operational objectives of any company.

After the company issues shares, some will want to buy or sell them (the primary market buyers). So these people come together on a regulated platform where transactions are fair and regulated. The stock exchange serves as a platform.

Today, the global equity market operates through a network of electronically connected stock exchanges. Even so, there are exchanges that have a physical location and a trading floor.

What Are the Functions of a Stock Exchange?

It seems that the primary function of a bag is clear, but there are additional roles that are not so visible:

  • Secondary market. It is the primary function of any stock exchange. Any stock exchange serves as a secondary market for the shares that a company-issued. Then, the holders and buyers of shares meet on the platform to carry out regulated operations with securities.
  • Economic health. The stock market also serves as a barometer of economic health. Analysts use the stock market to predict the direction of many financial markets. For example, when the stock market rises, it is a sign of relief and investors' willingness to invest in risky assets.
  • Company reliability. Also, a stock exchange determines the trustworthiness of the company whose shares you listed on it. There are criteria that the company must meet to be listed on a stock exchange.
  • Secure transactions. Any stock exchange has a regulator that controls its operation.
  • Mobility of funds. A business is a place where individual traders meet and big players like funds and online brokers. You never know who buys or sells stocks.

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How do you trade with shares?

Here, we must highlight two terms. They are primary and secondary markets. The primary market refers to securities issued through an IPO (initial public offering of shares). The stakes are offered to an initial pool of public shareholders.

The secondary market is what we call the stock market. It is the market where investors and traders can trade the shares without including the issuing company. Since investors do not interact with the company that directly placed the securities, stock exchanges serve as a connector or platform that enables buyers and sellers to meet their needs.

The secondary market is the stock market, where investors and traders can trade the shares without including the issuing company.

To trade stocks on the stock market, you must ask the broker for an advisor to represent your interests.

How to Set Stock Prices?

The most important issue for traders is price. So how is the stock price determined? The cost of the shares depends on the principle of supply/demand. When the company goes public, there are buyers and sellers of its shares. They determine the average price that reaches the desired level at which a seller wants to sell the claims and the story at which a buyer is ready to buy them. The exchange only tracks order flows for each stock.

Stock Market Players

A stock exchange is made up of traders and other players that significantly impact market operations. Check out the list below:

  • Companies. Companies or their management are those that issue shares to create a product for the stock market.
  • Brokers. They are the firms that represent the interests of traders or investors in the big market. It is much easier to enter the world of stock exchanges through a representative.
  • SEC (Securities Exchange Commission). The organization controls the fairness of prices, inside information, and other regulations that may affect market participants.
  • Online investors. Although online brokers represent investors, they are indirect agents of the market.
  • Financial advisors. Not all investors are skilled enough to trade stocks. Therefore, they apply to financial advisers who manage your money.
  • Money. Here we can mention mutual, hedge and pension funds. These are organizations that operate investments of others.

Bulls and Bears on the Stock Market

It is the foundation of any financial market. This knowledge will help you to invest not only in the stock exchange but in any other market, for example, Forex.

Bulls and bears are common names for buyers and sellers, respectively. A bull is the one that raises the price with its horns. A bear lowers the cost with its paws.

The price is a supposed agreement between bulls and bears.

Bulls and bears determine the price of the asset. The price is a supposed agreement between bulls and bears (bulls and bears). If you hear that bulls prevail in the market, it means that the price is going up. If the bears take over, the price goes down.

Types of Stock Exchanges

There are different types of stock exchanges that have other objectives.

Auction Bag

It is the type of exchange in which buyers and sellers offer their prices for a share as in an auction. The current price refers to the highest price a buyer is willing to send. The lowest price is the one that refers to the minimum that a seller is willing to accept. Trades are executed as soon as the prices match.

One of the examples in the New York Stock Exchange. In such a system, investors communicate on the physical trading floor.

Electronic Bag

Electronic exchanges have almost wholly replaced auction ones. These exchanges allow investors to carry out operations remotely. Also, they are faster. An example is the Nasdaq Stock Exchange.

Electronic Communication Networks (or ECNs)

It is part of the alternative trading systems. An ECN directly connects buyers and sellers. ECNs significantly reduce transaction costs. However, they are used mainly by institutional investors.

Over-the-Counter Bags

Over-the-counter, or over-the-counter, exchanges are where stocks that did not meet the more stringent requirements of leading businesses are listed. It means that these actions are riskier. What can we find among those requirements? A period that the company operates, confirming its reliability.

How to List on a Stock Market?

To have complete knowledge about the stock market, check the steps a company follows to list its shares on the stock market. It doesn't matter if you own Apple or a smaller company; you'll need to follow these steps to get published:

  • Step 1. The IPO is the primary term you should know when it comes to trading on the stock market. The IPO stands for the initial public offering of shares. Thus, the first step is to request the public offering by presenting the registration documents. They vary by country. For example, in the United States, you will have to deal with Form S-1 from the Securities and Exchange Commission.
  • Step 2. It would be better to mention this step before the previous one. You will need to verify the requirements of a particular stock exchange. Any significant stock exchange will check the reliability of the company. Conditions can include the initial share price, the number of shares, the total market value, and even the number of shareholders.
  • Step 3. However, there are different requirements. The first one we mention is related to the quotation process. In addition, the company must comply with the needs of the board.
  • Step 4. As soon as the company adapts to the stock market rules, its shares get a stock symbol. The symbol must correlate with the company name. Also, you cannot duplicate the existing ticker. It is recommended to use a short phrase that users can easily read.
  • Step 5. The following vital point is to choose an insurer. It is a company that serves as an intermediary between the company and investors who want to trade its shares.
  • Step 6. The final step is to apply to the stock market.

What Can You Find in a Stock Market?

Stock trading includes a wide range of assets. We are going to list them.


Of course, the first option stocks. We have already explained the process of listing companies. Some companies are listed on various stock exchanges. Thus, you can choose the one that suits you best.

You can trade a wide range of shares of various companies. Choose the best ones wisely. For that, you will need to be familiar with technical and fundamental analysis.


Another option is indexed. Simply put, an index is a set of company stocks that serves as a barometer of market sentiment. Indices are generally related to a specific industry. Therefore, to determine its health, you can follow the direction of the index. Indices have many advantages. They prevent you from making a difficult decision: what stocks to trade. If you are familiar with the term "mutual fund," you can compare an index to it.


Some exchanges offer ETF trading. ETF stands for Exchange Traded Funds. ETFs are a set of securities (for example, stocks) that track a particular index. ETFs are similar to mutual funds. They are listed on stock exchanges and are traded in the same way as ordinary shares.


It is also possible to operate with the company's bonds. These are less risky assets than stocks.

How to Choose Stocks and Start Trading on the Stock Market?

To select stocks that are most likely to lead to a successful strategy, you must combine fundamental and technical analysis. Fundamental analysis includes the company's earnings report, management news, industry health assessment, etc. Technical analysis is based on indicators and patterns.

As soon as you determine the stocks you want to trade, you must apply to a broker or online advisor, who will present your interests on the stock market.


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